freedom park, free black settlement williamsburgA few miles west of US Route 60 in Williamsburg, off of Centerville Road, is a quiet place called Freedom Park featuring one of the first free black settlements in the country.

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House owned by John Jackson, a former Lee slave. This style reflects the modest life of newly freed slaves, who were allowed to live rent free for 10 years.

Lost amidst the publicity of Colonial Williamsburg and Busch Gardens, Freedom Park contains beautifully constructed models of simple, early 19th-century houses that call to mind one of the most important events in American history: the emancipation of enslaved African-Americans.

Except these African Americans were not freed in 1865, with the abolition of slavery by the Thirteenth Amendment. They were freed in 1804 according to the will of someone named William Ludwell Lee. Lee was the grandson of Philip Ludwell III, a colonial Virginia statesman who was a friend to Benjamin Franklin and who was influential in gaining a colonel’s commission in the Virginia Regiment for a young George Washington in the 1750s. Lee’s great-great-grandfather, Philip Ludwell I, inherited Green Spring Plantation in the late 1600s.

Freedom Park and Green Spring Plantation

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Anthony Brown, a farmer and former slave, and his wife Rachel owned a home like this, showing some of the modest improvements some were able to make to their domestic life.

Why is Freedom Park hidden off a quiet road in James City County? Because the original homes were built on the northern part of Green Spring Plantation (known as the Hot Water Tract), which William Ludwell Lee inherited from his forebears. Green Spring lies approximately five miles west of Colonial Williamsburg.

Green Spring was one of the most influential houses and plantations in the colonial era, built originally by legendary Royal Governor William Berkeley before it was inherited by the Ludwell family. William Ludwell Lee’s will stipulated that upon manumission, the freed citizens were to be given a tract of land on his property – possibly the first free black settlement in the state.

Nearly 30 freed slaves were granted 1,200 acres of land known as the Hot Water Tract. This community was still in existence at the time of the Civil War, but by the 20th century the land had been divided, sold off, and eventually was turned into Freedom Park.

The Free Black Settlement’s Reconstructed Homes

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Owned by Juba Lightfoot, an artisan who was wealthier than his neighbors, this house was a more comfortable home than the others.

The Free Black Settlement at Freedom Park features three cabins, each reconstructed based on historical and archaeological research. Families lived here from 1804 until 1860, with the cabins built by Lee’s executor.

The three homes on display – Jackson, Brown, and Lightfoot – depict increasingly sophisticated methods of construction, and the relative wealth of the inhabitants. The Jackson home, a modest dwelling, “was typical for slaves, free Blacks, and poor Whites” and might only last 20 years before requiring replacement. John Jackson’s descendants still live in the area.

The Brown home (depicted in the main image, at top) was owned by freed slave Anthony Brown, a farmer, and his wife Rachel, a washerwoman. More sophisticated than the Jackson home, the Brown home shows the improvements that some were able to make in their living standards.

The third home on display, Lightfoot, belonged to Juba Lightfoot, an artisan. The exterior is covered with clapboards and the windows have shutters. Although Lightfoot had not been a Ludwell Lee slave, he spent much of his life at Hot Water Tract in Centerville, working as a bricklayer and plasterer.



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  1. […] Hannah married her first cousin William Lee (brother to Arthur and Richard Henry, and thus nephew to Philip III). With Hannah’s death in Belgium in 1784, William Lee took on full ownership of the Ludwell’s Green Spring plantation near Williamsburg. After suffering from blindness for many years, William passed away in 1795 and was laid to rest beside Ludwell forebears at nearby Jamestown in the church yard. His son (Philip Ludwell III’s grandson), Willam Ludwell Lee, provided for the manumission of the Green Spring slaves in his own will. Upon his death in 1803, approximately 30 slaves were then bequeathed 1,200 acres of land and newly built cabins, reconstructions of which can be found on former Green Spring property. […]

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